sunnuntaina, joulukuuta 27, 2015

‘Bell Curve’ täyttää 20 vuotta - Charles Murrayn haastattelu

‘The Bell Curve’ täytti 20 vuotta ja Charles Murrayta haastateltiin kirjan tiimoilta. Kirjan oleelliset pointit pätevät Murrayn mukaan edelleen:

1. Se paljonko ihminen saa palkkaa ja muutenkin pärjää elämässä on yhä enemmän riippuvainen äo:sta. On syntynyt kirjan ennusteen mukaisesti kognitiivinen eliitti, joka tienaa oleellisesti paremmin kuin muu väestö.

American political and social life today is pretty much one great big “Q.E.D.” for the two main theses of “The Bell Curve.” Those theses were, first, that changes in the economy over the course of the 20th century had made brains much more valuable in the job market; second, that from the 1950s onward, colleges had become much more efficient in finding cognitive talent wherever it was and shipping that talent off to the best colleges. We then documented all the ways in which cognitive ability is associated with important outcomes in life — everything from employment to crime to family structure to parenting styles. Put those all together, we said, and we’re looking at some serious problems down the road. 

Murray kannattaa kansalaispalkkaa sen epäoikeudenmukaisuuden edes pieneksi korjaamiseksi, että ihmisten mahdollisuudet ovat äo-erojen takia hyvin erilaiset.

2. Valkoisten ja mustien välinen ero on säilynyt Murrayn mukaan suunnilleen saman kokoisena.

Here’s what Dick and I said [1995]: "There is a mean difference in black and white scores on mental tests, historically about one standard deviation in magnitude on IQ tests (IQ tests are normed so that the mean is 100 points and the standard deviation is 15). This difference is not the result of test bias, but reflects differences in cognitive functioning. The predictive validity of IQ scores for educational and socioeconomic outcomes is about the same for blacks and whites."

Those were our confidently stated conclusions about the black-white difference in IQ, and none of them was scientifically controversial. See the report of the task force on intelligence that the American Psychological Association formed in the wake of the furor over “The Bell Curve.”
What’s happened in the 20 years since then? Not much. The National Assessment of Educational Progress shows a small narrowing of the gap between 1994 and 2012 on its reading test for 9-year-olds and 13-year-olds (each by the equivalent of about 3 IQ points), but hardly any change for 17-year-olds (about 1 IQ-point-equivalent). For the math test, the gap remained effectively unchanged for all three age groups.

On the SAT, the black-white difference increased slightly from 1994 to 2014 on both the verbal and math tests. On the reading test, it rose from .91 to .96 standard deviations. On the math test, it rose from .95 to 1.03 standard deviations.

If you want to say that the NAEP and SAT results show an academic achievement gap instead of an IQ gap, that’s fine with me, but it doesn’t change anything. The mean group difference for white and African American young people as they complete high school and head to college or the labor force is effectively unchanged since 1994.

1 kommentti:

Imulippo kirjoitti...

Tässä Stefan Molyneux haastattelee Charles Murrayta kyseisestä aiheesta.